Difination and forms of FGM


Female Genital mutilation, also known as female genital cutting or female circumcision, is the vital cutting or removal of some or removal all external female genitalia by use of razor, scissors or knives.

Female Genital Mutilation happens primarily in Africa that is East, North Eastern and West Africa, In Europe Immigrants are also affected,
FGM is also practised in Asia and the Middle East.

According to (WHO) World health organization 200 Million women are affected by FGM Worldwide.


There are four  main types of FGM

• Clitoridectomy, this is the removal of parts of Clitoris. Excision, these removals of some parts or all the clitoris and inner labia (lips around the vagina) with or without removal of labia majora, (larger outer lips).
• Infibulation narrowing of the vagina opening by creating a seal
formed by cutting and repositioning the labia.
• Other -this is where by grouping, cutting and pricking is practised.

Note: most of the girls undergo F:G:M forcefully without their consent.


FGM has got no health benefits and it can cause serious harms including

• Constant pain
• Pain or difficulty having sex
• Infections which sometimes leads to infertility
• Excessive bleeding
• depression (this is caused by the flashbacks)
• Problems during labour and child birth


FGM and Sex

FGM can make it difficult to make sex, its painful and it also reduces desire and pleasure during intercourse.


FGM and pregnancy

Most of the women who underwent F:G:M get difficulty during child birth.


FGM and Mental health

• most of the girls who underwent F:G:M are experiencing:
• depression
• anxiety
• flashbacks
• Trauma

communities at particular risks of F.G.M in Germany originate from: Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Indonesia, Ivory coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen.


Why does FGM Happens ?

• Social Expectations: F.G.M is right of passage to initiate a girl in to womanhood, in communities where F.G.M is practised mostly it goes hand in hand with child forced marriage where by a girl from 8 years is married.
• Economic pressure: "Cutter" is normally paid a lot and by fighting F.G.M we always receive strong opposing because it threatens cutters social standing because the community beliefs that F.G.M equites to purify, to cleans and strong moral is one reasons why families enforce F.G.M. and they also believe a clean girl will bring a lot of dowry.
• Community pressure: in some communities they believe if the girl is not circumcised, she is a curse to the community, she is either thrown out of the family, killed or she is disowned, so instead she must be forced to be cut.
• Sexual suppression: F.G.M includes partially or fully removal of clitorises which reduces sex desire. It's often performed to control female sexual desires in order to preserve girl's virginity., F.G.M and beliefs associated around it reinforce gender inequality.
• Religious believes: many communities beliefs that F.G.M. is a religious belief which is not, there is no place in Bible and Koran written that F.G.M. should be practised.


11.02.2020 - an article at  spiegel.de on the subject:

Female genital mutilation in Kenya
Fight against razor blades

www spiegel de

Genital mutilation is forbidden in Kenya, but young girls are still circumcised. But new, bloodless rites are slowly taking hold.

A visual story from Kenya by Nora Belghaus and Fabian Franke.

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